Celts to the Creche: Abbesses Beatrice and Anna of Iona Nunnery

Grave slab on Abbess Anna McLean, d. 1543 at Iona Nunnery. The bottom half of the slab is broken off, but has the Virgin Mary on it

Grave slab of Abbess Anna McLean, d. 1543 at Iona Nunnery. The top half of the slab is of Abbess Anna and the bottom half of the slab is broken off, but has the Virgin Mary on it. photo from ionahistory.org.uk

Latin inscription on the grave slab, partly lost: Here lies lady Anna, daughter of Donald, son of Charles, sometime Prioress of Iona who died in the year 1543. We commend her soul to the All-Highest…..

Celts to the Creche: Day 24

Abbesses Beatrice and Anna of Iona Nunnery

On this 24th day of our journey with the Celts to the Creche, we meet the Abbesses (Prioresses) Beatrice and Anna of the Iona  Nunnery.

Abbess Beatrice: Reginald, son of Somerled, Lord of the Isles (Raghnall mac Somhairle) founded Iona nunnery in 1207/8 and installed his sister, Beatrice (Bethoc), as its first Abbess. She was likely born about 1180 probably in the western Highlands of Scotland. In the Story of Iona by Rev. Edward Craig Trenholme in 1909, there is an interesting tidbit about Abbess Beatrice:

 “she seems to have been active in spiritual works,  for the same writer goes on to say that she built the church called Teampull Chairines, in the island of Uist…Martin, an observant traveller who made a tour of the Hebrides at the end of the seventeenth century, records an inscription which he read on a gravestone in Iona Nunnery: ‘BEHAG NIGN SORLE VIC IL VRID PRIORESSA’; Beatrice, daughter of Somerledt the son of Gilbride, prioress.”

Abbess Anna McLean: Anna was likely born in the late 15th c. into the McLean clan, the daughter of Donald, the son of Charles McLean. Little is known of the nuns who lived at the Iona Nunnery except we can assume that they followed a strict life of prayer and contemplation.

A few clues have been left which shed light on aspects of the nuns’ lives including the tombstone of Abbess Anna Maclean which is so detailed in its carving as to give a clear depiction of her dress. She is shown with a rochet, an overgarment which covered the head and part of the body, made up of white or black linen (likely black since they were probably Augustinian) with long sleeves which fit close to the arms and ended at the hand. Her grave slab also depicts her with a mirror and a comb, with towers, and with two small dogs. The top part is of Anna and the bottom image is of the Virgin Mary with the sun and moon. The carving is attributed to the Augustinian Oronsay School of Carvers.  From her grave slab, we know her resurrection day was 1543.

A drawing of what the gravestone looked like before it broke

A drawing of what the gravestone looked like before it broke. picture from ionahistory.org.uk.

Abbess Anna’s patronage extended to the church of Soroby on the island of Tiree which was held by the nunnery. In St. Columba’s (see Day 4 of Celts to the Creche) time, Tiree was the place where grain was grown for the Abbey and Columba likely established a daughter abbey there. Anna dedicated a large Celtic cross to the Soroby church.  The shaft of the cross was dedicated to the Archangel Michael by Anna, Prioress of Iona.  St. Michael is depicted on the cross with a dragon and the image of a nun being led away by death. St. Michael was known as the collector of good souls, so perhaps Abbess Anna was hoping that St. Michael would carry her to heaven.

Celtic cross at church at Soroby on island of Tiree. photo from http://www.scotlandsplaces.gov.uk

Celtic cross at church at Soroby on island of Tiree. photo from scotlands  places.gov.uk

McLean’s Cross: The McLean’s Cross, a Celtic High Cross on Iona, was carved from a single slab of stone about 1500. It was produced by the stone carvers of the famous Iona School. It was placed on the road between Iona Abbey and Iona Nunnery and stands about 120 yards north of the Nunnery. It is 10’4” tall. Perhaps this fine cross was commissioned by Abbess Anna’s father Donald or her grandfather Charles.

15th c. McLean's Cross between Iona Abbey and Iona Nunnery

15th c. McLean’s Cross between Iona Abbey and Iona Nunnery

Iona Nunnery: Some say that the nunnery was Benedictine, but it is more likely that they were one of only two Augustinian Orders in Scotland, the other being in Perth. It is one of the best preserved medieval nunneries in all of Britain.

The nunnery was dedicated to the Virgin Mary or St. Oran and earned itself the name ‘An Eaglais Dhubh’, the black church, after the color of the nuns’ robes. They followed the teachings of Augustine of Hippo in Egypt.  Even though the nunnery was Augustinian, the construction of the buildings was in the typical Irish style, revealing the continued  influence of St. Columba who came from Ireland  and established this island.

The nunnery became a popular place for retired women of nobility of western Scotland and a place of burial. A graveslab in Ronan’s Chapel (Teampull Rònain) bears the inscription: ‘Here lie Finnguala and Mariota MacInolly, sometime nuns of Iona’. 

Unlike the rest of the Iona Abbey buildings, the nunnery has not been fully restored since being made derelict during or sometime after the Reformation. The pink granite walls that remain are considered to be some of  the best examples of a medieval nunnery left in Britain. Some restoration work was done on the nunnery in 1922/1923 and 1993. In 1923, the  cloister garth was planted as a memorial garden and there are numerous early sculptured stones  preserved in the convent.

Iona Nunnery. Sept. 2014

Iona Nunnery. Sept. 2014

Sacristy of Iona Nunnery. Photo taken Sept. 2014

Sacristy of Iona Nunnery. Photo taken Sept. 2014

Iona Nunnery. Photo taken on my trip to Iona in Sept. 2009.

Iona Nunnery. Photo taken on my pilgrimage to Iona in Sept. 2009.

Poignant line of women's graves outside the Iona Nunnery, Sept. 2014

Poignant line of women’s graves outside the Iona Nunnery, Sept. 2014

In the National Museums of Scotland are four silver and gilt spoons and a broken gold fillet found during preservation work in December 1922 at the base of the south respond of the chancel arch. There were indications that they had been deposited, wrapped in linen, in the 13th century.

Silver gilt spoon found at Nunnery. Photo from the National Museum of Scotland

Silver gilt spoon found at Nunnery. Photo from the National Museum of Scotland

Ronan’s Chapel: About 30 feet north of the west end of the nunnery is  Ronan’s chapel which was built about the same time as the nunnery and served as the parish church for the medieval inhabitants of the only village on Iona, called Baile Mòr.  The church is about 37’x16′. It was named for St. Ronan whose feast day is February 7 in the Scottish calendars. He is listed in the Annals of Ulster as having died in 737.

The church was dissolved during the Protestant Reformation of 1560. But, it is interesting that King James IV, during the Reformation, did not close down the monasteries, instead he put a hefty tax on them each year to pay. Often, the monasteries could not pay the tax and would have to let the foundation go.

 Excavations beneath the floor of the chapel  in 1992 revealed traces of an earlier chapel, possibly dating from the 8th century, with a possible burial ground under the 8th c. foundation that relates closely to the beginning of St. Columba’s time.  The chapel now houses architectural fragments and graveslabs found at the nunnery.

Inside of Ronan's Chapel where lots of grave slabs are stored

Inside of Ronan’s Chapel where lots of grave slabs are stored. Photo taken from my pilgrimage to Iona in Sept. 2009.

In 1574 the last Abbess Marian McLean passed the convent and the lands to Hector McLean of Duart.

John Philip Newell in his newest book, The Rebirthing of God magnificently describes the Iona Nunnery that has often been overlooked by those who choose to go straight to the Abbey without noticing the strange beauty of this place that is both ruinous and gorgeous. He describes the stillness and sacredness of praying in this  nunnery abbey that is like a roofless cathedral, open to the sights, sounds, and smells of sky and nature.  He believes that this nunnery has often been bypassed because of our neglect of the feminine. Philip boldly states:

“Our religion, like much of Western culture, has suffered a tragic imbalance. The neglect and exploitation of the earth have gone hand in hand with a subordination and abuse of the feminine. This has often included a fear of the feminine and its deep birthing energies. Praying in the Nunnery is part of the growing desire in us to bring back into relationship again so-called opposites that have been torn apart, the masculine and the feminine, as well as the life of humanity and the life of the earth.” (p. 2-3.)

Meditation

These two nuns of noble families, would likely tell us to simply “be faithful.” Be faithful to God, be faithful to family, be faithful to neighbor, be faithful to God’s magnificent creation. Be faithful to stay on the path of pilgrimage to the creche, to the place of new birth and renewed hope. O God, help me to be faithful. Amen.

Some Resources:

Perkins-Curan, Kim. Quhat say ye now my lady priores? How have ye usit your office can ye ges? Politics, Power and Realities of the Office of Prioress in Her Community in Late Medieval Scotland. at www.academia.edu. 

Cochrane, Robert, ed. Report of the Excursion of the Cambrian Archaeological Association in Connexion wih the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland to the Western Islands of Scotland, Orkney, and Caithness, June 1899.

Goodrich-Freer, Ada. Outer Isles.

Historic Scotland. Iona Nunnery, St. Ronan’s Church and McLean’s Cross.  

MacArthur, E. Mairi. Columba’s Island: Iona From Past to Present. Edinburgh: University Press, 1995, 2007 reprint with corrections.

_____________. Iona. Grantown-on-Spey, Scotland: Colin Baxter Photography, Ltd., 1999.

Millar, Peter W. Iona: A Pilgrim’s Guide. Norwich, UK: Canterbury Press, 2007.

Newell, John Phillip. The Rebirthing of God. Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing, 2014.

Ritchie, Anna and Ian Fisher. Historic Scotland. Iona Abbey and Nunnery. rev. ed. 2004.

 Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments in Scotland. Iona and Iona Nunnery.

Trenholme, Edward Craig. The Story of Iona. 1909.

 

About pastorpilgrim

Pastor Pilgrim is an ordained Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) clergy. I am married with two grown sons, a Hurricane Rita gift cat, and two Maine Coons. My interests include illuminated manuscripts, pilgrimage, Franciscan and Celtic spirituality, Shakers, Anglo-Saxon and Merovingian abbesses and their double monasteries, comfy cute shoes, Native American spirituality, and genealogy. I am a "Dancing Monk" with the online Abbey of the Arts (known as the Disorder of Dancing Monks!). Join me as we travel with the Celtic/Anglo-Saxon saints in an Advent devotional entitled, "Celts to the Creche" at www.saintsbridge.org. I also write of some of my pilgrimages, musings, and another Advent devotional, "Pilgrimage to Bethlehem" at www.pastorpilgrim.wordpress.com
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2 Responses to Celts to the Creche: Abbesses Beatrice and Anna of Iona Nunnery

  1. Gail Steele says:

    I am a direct descendant of the MacLeans. My sister and I wear copies of the MacLean cross purchased on our pilgrimage to Duart Castle two years ago. I also do genealogy and am a Christian writer. We were unable to make it to Iona, so thank you for all the beautiful photos and the fascinating history.
    Gail

    • How wonderful to meet a direct descendant of the McLean’s! I am so glad you found my blog on Anna McLean and her family. I have a Celtic brooch from Iona that has Abbess Anna’s tombstone picture incised upon it. You may be able to find one online. What a great heritage you have! My maternal side is a sept of the McLean’s.

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