Celts to the Creche: The Venerable Bede

Modern day mosaic of Bede at the underpass near the bus station in Jarrow, just a few yards from where Bede lived

Modern day mosaic of Bede at the underpass near the bus station in Jarrow, just a few yards from where Bede lived

Celts to the Creche: Day 23

(December 25, 2017)

With the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Saints we enter the Creche of Christ

The Venerable Bede

672/673-May 26, 735 AD

Icon of Bede. Writer of the icon is unknown

Icon of Bede. Writer of the icon is unknown

On this 23rd and final day of our journey with the Celts to the Creche, we meet Bede who was a historian, theologian, monk, scholar, writer, and a person of deep faith in Christ who wrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, which is his best known work. We know very little about his personal life except what he wrote  in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History that was completed about 731. If it were not for Bede’s works, we would know very little of the early history of the English nation. So, this one who loved and adored Jesus the Christ and gave his entire life  to his Lord, it is appropriate that Bede joins the angels and the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon  Communion of  Saints in leading us this holy day into the Creche  where Jesus the long-awaited Messiah is born anew in our lives.

His Life: Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year in 731, which would give a likely birth date of about 672–673. He said that he was born “on the lands of this monastery,” referring to the two twin monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, but there is also a tradition saying that he was born at Monkton, two miles from the monastery at Jarrow. Bede says nothing about his parents, but he was likely from a Christian family of nobility from the area of Lindsey (Lincolnshire) that later was dissolved into Northumbria and sometimes into Mercia. Bede’s first abbot was Benedict Biscop, and the names “Biscop” and “Beda” both appear in the Anglian Collection of Genealogies, which is a list of the early kings of Lindsey further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. The name “Bede” was not a common one at the time.

Bede's World. photo taken Sept. 2014

Jarrow Hall (Bede Museum) formerly Bede’s World. photo taken Sept. 2014 (note: Update: Good news! Bede’s World that closed on Feb. 12, 2016 reopened in late 2016 as “Jarrow Hall Anglo Saxon Farm Village and Bede Museum”). Revisited October 2017

Early Life: At the age of seven, he was sent to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and later by Ceolfrith.

Worshipped at St. Peter’s Church, Monkwearmouth, October 2017. The tower on the front of the church likely dates to the time of Bede.

Monkwearmouth’s sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, and Bede probably transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year. Bede would have been surrounded by the finest manuscripts, pictures,  relics, Roman furniture, and religious vestments as Benedict Biscop would often travel to Rome to choose the finest items he could for his monastery and for it’s library.

Jarrow Church: The dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day; it is dated 23 April 685, and as Bede would have been required to assist with menial tasks in his day-to-day life, it is possible that he helped in building the original church. It is wonderful to be in the Jarrow church in which Bede likely helped build, where he worshipped, and where he lived and wrote.

St. Paul's Church, Jarrow

St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow, visited 2007,  Sept. 2014, and October 2017

Bede records that Benedict Biscop only wanted stone churches and buildings like those he saw in Rome versus the wooden churches of the Anglo-Saxons, so Benedict brought over from Italy the finest Roman stonemasons and from Mainz, Germany the best glass artists for his new monastery. Benedict also brought over one of the finest cantors, Abbot John of the Roman monastery of St. Martin’s to teach his monks to sing and how to read outloud. The south wall of the Jarrow church was filled with pictures or figurines of the Gospels while pictures or figurines from the Revelation of John were displayed along the north wall. Bede said that the church was so filled with pictures and scenes from the life of Christ that even if one was unable to read, that they could understand the Gospel message.

Dedication stone of St. Paul's Church, Jarrow. "Dedicatio basilicae sci Pauli VIIII KL Mai Anno XV Ecfridi Reg Ceolfrdi Abb eiusdem Q eccles do auctore conditoris Anno IIII." The dedication of the church of St. Paul on the 9th of the Kalends of May in the fifteenth year of King Egfrith and the fourth year of Ceolfrith, abbot, and with God's help, founder of this church.

Photo taken Oct. 2014. Copy of Dedication stone of St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow. The original stone is right above this built high into the stone wall. “Dedicatio basilicae sci Pauli VIIII KL Mai Anno XV Ecfridi Reg Ceolfrdi Abb eiusdem Q eccles do auctore conditoris Anno IIII.”
The dedication of the church of St. Paul on the 9th of the Kalends of May in the fifteenth year of King Egfrith and the fourth year of Ceolfrith, abbot, and with God’s help, founder of this church.

Stained Glass of St. Ceolfrith in St. Peter's Church, Wearmouth

Stained Glass of St. Ceolfrith in St. Peter’s Church, Wearmouth. I worshipped with this congregation in October 2017

Plague: The very next year, in 686, plague broke out at Jarrow. The Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices; one was Ceolfrith and the other a young boy, who according to the anonymous writer had been taught by Ceolfrith. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy until others could be trained. The young boy was almost certainly Bede, who would have been about 14.

Scriptorium: There must have been a large scriptorium at Jarrow as the famous 75 lb. Codex Amiantinus that was to be a gift for Pope Gregory II was produced by St. Ceolfrith.

Codex Amiantinus that was produced by Ceolfrith while at Wearmouth or Jarrow. This is a page from the Bible that was based on the Vulgate Bible of Ezra the scribe.

Codex Amiantinus that was produced by Ceolfrith while at Wearmouth or Jarrow. This is a page from the Bible that was based on the Vulgate Bible of Ezra the scribe. The only full sized copy was brought back to England and displayed at Bede’s World (now Jarrow Hall) in the Summer and Fall of 2014.

This Bible was a great set of handwritten and illuminated volumes using the Vulgate Bible. It is possible that the Jarrow scriptorium is where Bede did  his writing also.

Ordination: In about 692, when Bede was 19, he was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, John of Beverly (see Celts to the Creche day 12) who was Bishop of Hexham, and was later Bishop of York. Bishop John was trained in St. Hilda of Whitby’s monastery (see day 2 of Celts to the Creche), so Bede had this great Celtic influence.

The canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25 so Bede’s early ordination may mean that his abilities were considered exceptional or that the minimum age requirement was waived after the monastery was decimated by the plague.  In Bede’s thirtieth year (about 702), he became a priest, with the ordination again performed by Bishop John of Hexham.

Bede as a Writer: Bede was a prolific writer, penning over 60 books, most of which have survived.  He was very concerned for the welfare of the English and wanted them to know how to read and write Latin to aid in their conversion to Christianity.

With a huge wooden carved statue of Bede at Jarrow Hall (formerly Bede’s World) in Jarrow. October 2017

In order to make the scripture accessible to his people, he worked at translating Latin works into English such as the Apostles Creed and the Lord’s Prayer. Besides his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, he also wrote the Lives of Saints such as Cuthbert and Felix; a book on martyrology; and many biblical works such as commentaries and exegesis on Samuel, Genesis, Ezra, Song of Songs, Proverbs, Acts, Luke, Mark, Epistles and Revelations. He even wrote sermons and poems. Bede is also credited with being one of the first to use the dating system of Anno Domini (A.D.) that was developed by Dionysius Exiguus in 525 A.D.Both Dionysius and Bede considered Anno Domini as commencing at the incarnation of Christ.

Bede in the Nuremburg Chronicle

Bede in the Nuremburg Chronicle

Bede who lived his entire life at the monastery, rarely left it even to travel, but in 733, he  took a trip to York to visit Ecgbert, the Bishop of York and he also went to the monastery of Lindisfarne where Æthelwald was Abbot then. At  some point he visited the unknown monastery of a monk named Wicthed, that he mentioned in a letter to that monk.

There must have been a large library at Jarrow for Bede to use for his research, that aided his writings. Bede also said that his research included personal interviews with religious leaders of his time that he knew. One of these interviews was likely with Adomnán, the 9th Abbot of Iona and the biographer of St. Columba who visited Ceolfrith when Bede was a youth. Another person who likely shared information with Bede was St. John of Beverley (also of Hexham and York) who had ordained Bede both as a deacon and a priest. St. John of Beverly would have been able to give firsthand information on St. Hilda of Whitby since he was trained by her.

The complete listing of Bede’s works can be found on Wikipedia: List of Bede’s Writings.

The Moore Bede is regarded by many as the earliest surviving manuscript of the "Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum"

The Moore Bede is regarded by many as the earliest surviving manuscript of the Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. In the Cambridge University Library, Kk.5.16. Photo from Bedenet.com

Place of Resurrection: Bede died at about 62 years of age on Thursday,  May 26, 735 and was buried at Jarrow. Cuthbert (different than St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne), a disciple of Bede’s, wrote a letter to Cuthwin, describing Bede’s last days and his death. According to Cuthbert, Bede fell ill, “with frequent attacks of breathlessness but almost without pain,” before Easter. On  Tuesday, two days before Bede died, his breathing became worse and his feet swelled.

He continued to dictate to a scribe, however, and despite spending the night awake in prayer he dictated again the following day. At three o’clock, according to Cuthbert, he asked for a box of his to be brought, and distributed among the priests of the monastery “a few treasures” of his: “some pepper, and napkins, and some incense.” That night he dictated a final sentence to the scribe, a boy named Wilberht, and died soon afterwards. Cuthbert’s letter also relates a five-line poem in the vernacular that Bede supposedly composed on his deathbed, known as “Bede’s Death Song”.

Bede's Tomb at Durham Cathedral

Bede’s Tomb at Durham Cathedral in the Galilee Chapel, 2009, October 2017

Bede was buried at Jarrow, but his body was ‘translated’ (his relics were moved) from Jarrow to Durham Cathedral around 1020, where it was placed in the same tomb with St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne. Later Bede’s remains were moved to a shrine in the Galilee Chapel at Durham Cathedral in 1370. The shrine was destroyed during the English Reformation, but his bones were reburied in the chapel. In 1831 his bones were dug up, and then reburied in a new tomb, which is still there. It is interesting that during that opening of the Bede’s tomb, that three casts were made of his skull. All three disappeared over time, but one has been discovered by Professor Jo Story, of the University of Leicester. She found it in 2015 among the collections of the Duckworth Laboratory in the Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies at the University of Cambridge.

If not too morbid, a photo of a cast of Bede's skull made in 1831 and found at Cambridge University in 2015.

If not too morbid, a photo of a cast of Bede’s skull made in 1831 and found at Cambridge University in 2015.

Cast of back of skull with Bede's name.

Cast of back of skull with Bede’s name.

Bede’s World (now called Jarrow Hall as of October 2016) in Jarrow is a must visit for anyone interested in Bede and that time period in history. It is an interactive museum filled with items about Bede and the two monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow. It is next door to the ancient and historical Jarrow Church where each May the church brings in Anglo-Saxon scholars for the Jarrow Lecture to share about this fascinating period of history. Also Wearmouth has begun a lecture series with Anglo-Saxon scholars each year in August. The archaeologist for Jarrow was Dr. Rosemary Cramp who often speaks at the Jarrow Lectures.

Stained Glass of Bede at Bede's World

Stained Glass of Bede at Jarrow Hall (formerly known as Bede’s World)

Meditation

Feast Day May 25 (even though his death date is May 26)

We have been like a multitude of Mary’s, pregnant with the Christ child, anxiously awaiting the birth of this Messiah anew in our lives. We have gathered at the Bethlehem creche, the manger where Christ was born 2,000 years ago to Mary. Even today, Jesus the Christ is born anew into our world and into our lives. May the light and love of Christ so penetrate our souls and our very lives that we become lighthouses wherever we continue our life pilgrimage.

Thank you for journeying with the Celts to the Creche this Advent season. It truly has been an honor and a joy to pilgrimage with you. People from all over this planet have made this pilgrimage with us, allowing us a  glimpse of the good hope that one day we will all live in the longed-for peaceable kingdom. It is also my hope that as we have journeyed through these holy days of anticipation and waiting that we have made some new friends from the other side of the veil. This online pilgrimage has been a thin place where the Communion of Saints have joined us and now we all are able to declare in one glorious voice throughout the ages  “Christ is born today, Christ is born today!

The faithful Bede used his skills and gifts of the Spirit for careful research and writing to share the Gospel of God’s love for all people. He wrote about himself saying, “It has always been my delight to learn or to teach or to write.”

As we invite the incarnational Christ, both human and divine to be born anew in our lives on this Christmas Day, we too become little Christ’s bringing transformation and hope to our world. How may we use our abilities, training, creativity, passions, and inner giftedness to bless God, our family, our neighbor, and perhaps as with the life of Bede, many future generations of learners and seekers after God?

Merry Christmas!  Hallelujah! Christ is Born Anew in our Lives!

What an incredible experience to get to stand behind the Communion Table at the Jarrow Church where Bede worshipped.

As an ordained minister, what an incredible experience  to stand behind the Communion Table at St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow where Bede and Abbot Ceolfrith worshipped. Sept. 2014.

Sitting on the Bishop's Throne Chair in St. Peter and Paul's Church, Jarrow. Oct. 2014

I am sitting on the Bishop’s Chair in St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow. Sept. 2014 and was able to sit in this chair again in October 2017

Standing in the Chancel Area, St. Peter and Paul's Church, Jarrow, Oct. 2014

Standing near the Chancel Area, St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow, Sept. 2014

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Some Resources:

Annual Wearmouth Lecture  information on St. Peter’s Church, Monkwearmouth Facebook page.

Bede’s Lost Skull Cast’ rediscovered’. BBC. 5 September 2015.

Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Website from Fordham University.

“Bede,” by Roger Ray in Lapidge, Blaire, Keynes, & Scragg, The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 2001.

Bede’s Way Walk.  There is a 12 mile pilgrimage between the twin St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s churches usually the last Saturday in June.  Pilgrimage information.

Bede’s World. See Jarrow Hall Anglo Saxon Farm and Bede’s Museum below.

Blair, John. The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Blair, Peter Hunter. The World of Bede. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Brown, Michelle P. How Christianity Came to Britain and Ireland. Oxford, UK: Lion Hudson, 2006.

chronicaminora.wordpress.com/category/bede/ (a blog of a Ph.D. student who is working on Bede for their dissertation)

Codex Amiatinus Bible Returns to Its Home in Jarrow. BBC. 15 May 2014.

Colgrave, Bertram. The Venerable Bede and His Times. Jarrow Lecture, 1958.

Cramp, Rosemary. Meet the Archaeologist: Rosemary Cramp. July 4, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m098mBcO-ks

Dales, Douglas. Light to the Isles: Mission and Theology in Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Britain. Cambridge, UK: James Clarke & Co., 1997.

Duckett, Eleanor S. Anglo-Saxon Saints and Scholars. New York: McMillan, 1947.

Fletcher, Eric. Benedict Biscop. Jarrow Lecture, 1981.

Foot, Sarah. Bede’s Church. Jarrow Lecture, 2012.

Goffart, Walter. The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D.550-800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Benedict Biscop” in blog: Heavenfield. by Michelle Ziegler,  August 2010.

Higham, Nicholas J. and Martin J. Ryan. The Anglo-Saxon World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.

Hume, Basil. Footprints of the Northern Saints. London, UK: Darton, Longman, & Todd, Ltd., 1996.

Jarrow Hall Anglo Saxon Farm Village and Bede Museum. (Note: formerly “Bede’s World” that was closed on Feb. 12, 2016, reopened under new ownership (Groundwork South Tyneside and Newcastle) in October 2016 as Jarrow Hall. According to their website, their full re-opening began in April 2017.

Leyser, Henrietta. Beda: A Journey Through the Seven Kingdoms in the Age of Bede. London: Head of Zeus, 2015.

Mary-Harting, Henry. The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England. University Park, PA: The University of Pennsylvania Press, 3rd ed. 1991.

McClure, Judith. “Bede and the Life of Ceolfrid, ” Peritia, Vol. 30. 1984, p. 71-84.

Parkes, M. B. The Scriptorium of Wearmouth-Jarrow. Jarrow Lecture, 1982.

Rollason, David. Saints and Relics in Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford, UK. Basil Blackwell, 1989.

Smart, Ian Hunter, Mavis Dry, and Geoff Green. The Royal Ancient &  Monastic Parish Church of St. Paul, Jarrow. UK: Temprint. nd.

“St. Bede” by Dom Alberic Stacpoole in Benedict’s Disciples, edited by D. H. Farmer. Leominster, UK: Fowler Wright Books Ltd, 1980.

St. Paul’s Church, Jarrow, UK. 

St. Peter’s Church, Wearmouth, UK.

Stenton, F. M. Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 3rd ed., 1971, 2001 reissue.

Sunfm 103.4. Historic Project Finished at Sunderland Church. 04/11/17 (new stained glass honoring Bede installed in Bede’s Bakehouse and Cafe, St.Peter’s Church, Sunderland) where first stained glass was installed in England in 674AD).

Turner, Sam, Sarah Semple, and Alex Turner. Wearmouth & Jarrow: Northumbrian monasteries in an historic landscape. Hatfield, UK: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2013.

Wallace-Hadrill, J.M. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People: A Historical Commentary. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1988.

Warren, Brenda G. The Venerable Bede: Delighting in our Giftedness. Godspace-MSA.com. May 25, 2017.

Wilson, David M., ed. The Archaeology of Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Wormald, Patrick. “Bede and Benedict Biscop” in Famulus Christi:Essays in Commemoration of the Thirteenth Centenary of the Birth of the Venerable Bede. G. Bonner, ed., London, 1976.

____________. Bede and the Conversion of England: The Charter Evidence. Jarrow Lecture, 1984.

Yorke, Barbara. Rex Doctissimus: Bede and King Aldfrith of Northumbria. Jarrow Lecture, 2009.

__________. The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain            c.600–800. New York: Pearson Longman, 2006.

About pastorpilgrim

Pastor Pilgrim is an ordained Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) clergy. I am married with two grown sons, a Hurricane Rita gift cat, and two Maine Coons.

My interests include illuminated manuscripts, pilgrimage, Franciscan and Celtic spirituality, Shakers, Anglo-Saxon and Merovingian abbesses and their double monasteries, comfy cute shoes, Native American spirituality, and genealogy. I am a “Dancing Monk” with the online Abbey of the Arts (known as the Disorder of Dancing Monks!).

Join me as we travel with the Celtic/Anglo-Saxon saints in an Advent devotional entitled, “Celts to the Creche” at www.saintsbridge.org.
I also write of some of my pilgrimages, musings, and another Advent devotional, “Pilgrimage to Bethlehem” at www.pastorpilgrim.wordpress.com

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